Salaman His critique suggests that there is insufficient time given in such an approach to understanding existing cultures, both at a general level and in terms of the underpinning key components and variables, and the consequence is cultural imperialism. (2006). Thirdly, it offers an international perspective by looking at the micro relationship of culture to the multiple identities and cultures of individuals and organizations. Identity based and reputational leadership: an American Indian approach to leadership. International Journal for Leadership in Education, 4(4), 2029. , For example, culture is suggested to both shape and reflect values (Begley & Wong, 2001), philosophy (Ribbins & Zhang, 2004), gender (Celikten, 2005), religion (Sapre & Ranade, 2001), politics (Hwang, 2001), ethnicity (Bryant, 1998) and history (Wong, 2001). & (Hoppe, 2004, p. 333). Powell, Farrar and Cohen (1985) used research from fifteen high schools to depict a culture of easy and uncritical acceptance of underachievement. , & Goddard, T. By contrast Singaporean cultures emphasis on collective action and respect for seniority underpins acceptance and effective use of mentoring as an important mode of development, defined as a process whereby an expert or senior person guides a less experienced leader (Tin, 2001). As we shall demonstrate later in the chapter, it is getting to understand these values and beliefs that is a critical first step for educational leaders in developing the skills to manage, develop and evolve culture in their school. Ranade, M. L. Dorfman, P. W. M. D. & Developing the argument further, Litvins point is that even within an apparently homogeneous group there will be wide variation in culture related to the multiple characteristics, history and context of each individual. Beyond the school, though, lies a range of contextual cultures extending from the community within which the school lies to regional, national and international cultural contexts. Fernandez Hanges Cultural influences on organizational leadership. , (2001). Preparation and development programs therefore face a twofold challenge: In the next section we shall examine the issues of culture and leadership preparation and development. , & We need to work in organisations, collectively developing an understanding of where they are going and what is important. It involves consideration of fit to the culture of each individual school but also the necessity to equip leaders to engage with their own organizations culture, to sustain, develop or challenge it. Celebration and humour"we feel good about ourselves" a holistic concept. This paper's focus is school culture as 10. Decisions to encourage acceptance or critique of the dominant culture and its effect lie at the moral heart of supporting the education of leaders. as cited in Stoll, Fink & Earl, 2003, p. 132). Fink, D. International Journal of Leadership In Education, 4(4),297307. (2003). Bush, T. Hallinger (2001) notes the changing aims of Asian education and specifically the global standards applied to assessing the quality of education in Hong Kong. ), Educational management: Redefining theory, policy and practice (pp. Wang, H. The political perspective would see educational leaders as seeking to generate in their pupils and staff a critical view of society, to challenge existing orthodoxies and to become citizens able to participate in social and cultural change. The mechanics of diffusion and the appropriateness of the results have been subject to unequal research interest. However culture is often defined in broad general terms as, for example, the way we do things around here (Deal & Kennedy, 1982), obscuring complex and contested conceptualizations. In others, variation is considerable and the primary drive to develop teaching and learning, attainment and achievement may be located elsewhere. The adoption of similar sets of competences, for example, reflects to some degree airbrushing out the influence of local culture (Davis, 2001; Macpherson, Kachelhoffer & El Nemr, 2007). The dynamic culture of Dalin's(1995) typology of schools. 6886). The key dimension of cultural scales is that they all exist synchronously, and they all interact upwards and downwards. Walker, A. (2004) also found evidence of 35 aspects of leadership which are culturally specific, for example, the degree to which compassion, status-consciousness, autonomy and domination are perceived to contribute to effective leadership is culturally contingent. School culture is the set of shared values, beliefs and norms that influence the way educators and administrators think, feel and behave in schoolplace. Collard (2006), for example, contends that much of the global level educational development through programs of agencies such as UNESCO and the World Bank is based on an import model which he portrays as a tidal wave of western values, sweeping away existing cultural environments. (2001). The processes of globalization have been a significant feature of all dimensions of society and economy over the last three decades. (2004). Cohen, D. K. The first relates to the ways the day-to-day operations of the school interact with the outside world. International Studies in Educational Administration. International Studies in Educational Administration. The concept of culture has appeared frequently in analyses of both. Conceptualizing the schools culture through such a systems approach helps clarify the challenges for school leaders in relation to culture. There are no essential, innate and immutable characteristics of race, age, gender, disability or other demographic categories. International Journal for Leadership in Education, 4(4), 401414. Washington Middle School 716 E. La Habra Boulevard La Habra, CA 90631 Phone: 562-690-2374. Crossing the great divides: problems of cultural diffusion for leadership in education. This is but one element of the interplay of competing values, priorities and hierarchies of power which influence culture. The chapter aims to avoid becoming ensnared in the complexity of culture by confining its discussion to a sample of illustrative examples of both simple and complex conceptualizations. Consequently, a tendency to stereotype or discount alternative cultures must be halted by conscious, persistent effort (Lumby with Coleman, 2007). Leading and Managing Education: International Dimensions. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 12(4), 385408. Hofstede, G. Sarason, S. However, process models may not mesh with some cultures. Ruiz-Quintanilla, A. Metaphorically culture is like the air we breathe; all around us, vital, and yet difficult to discern and to change. A second early example from the US of a description of a cultural type was the shopping mall school. Bottery asserts that there is a risk through this that there may be emerging a perspective that defines what looks increasingly like a global picture of management practice. London: Sage. Prasad (1999). There exists a considerable literature on culture, which provides a range of conceptualizations. What is the significance of time is the organization most oriented towards the past, the present or the future? , A more flexible and subtle shaping will be needed. (2003). Leadership is therefore a community property shaped by a complex interrelationship between individuals and context, rather than resulting from individual intent and competition. Who. Two typologies are developed. They suggest the spiritual values embedded in the teaching of Vivekananda, Tagore and Ghandi would provide a more culturally appropriate basis for the leadership of education than the currently Western values which relate in part to the colonial history of the nation. | Terms & conditions. As in the acquisition of any language, fluency can only be achieved by practice and not just by theory (Taras & Rowney, 2007). In Nick Foskett, Print publication date: July 2008 , He also insisted that the complex creation of culture was the result of multiple inputs from staff, learners and the wider community. Crawford Hargreaves (1995) developed a different typological model in which he distinguishes formal, welfarist, hothouse, and survivalist school cultures based on the educational priorities of the school in the context of external market environments. (forthcoming). In the context of education this is seen through the promotion of policies and practices around the globe that have been initially developed in the west, based often on western approaches to educational management and the key concept of economic rationalism. Kennedy, A. (Eds. Bajunid, I. The organization's relationship to its environment. Ali (1996, p. 7) argues that the Jabria school of Muslim thought, influential in the Arab world, might rule out systematic planning as to plan is in conflict with predestination. The purpose of this book is to re-orient the current agenda in education towards learning. , Creating this culture of change by constantly challenging the status quo is a contact sport involving hard, labor-intensive work and a lot of time. House, R. (2005). Journal of Educational Administration, 34(5), 7497. Head teachers in rural China: aspects of ambition. (2001, October). Al-Meer, A. Murphy A number of research areas seem indicated as urgently required. , & Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. , ), Leading Schools in a Global Era: A Cultural Perspective, Peabody Journal of Education, Litvin, D. R. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 14(1), 3035. Bolam Discourse and Organization. Educational Management & Administration, Billot, J. Commentary. (2004). Cross-cultural understandings of leadership: themes from Native American interviews. None is universally applicable nor comprehensive in its utility, yet they provide a range of perspectives to assist in clarifying this miasmic concept. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. These elements are but the tangible appearance of the underpinning set of values and beliefs, which shape the intended outcomes of the educational enterprise within a school. No one theory of leadership is implied. 2 C. BELLEI ET AL. , For example, Walker, Bridges and Chan (1996) provide a rare example of research into the fit of a particular learning approach, problem-based-learning, to a specific cultural context, Hong Kong. Similarly, Louque (2002) challenges the appropriateness of the culture embedded in the selection and development of educational leaders to Hispanic and African American Women. (Eds. Bottery (1999) has described this as managerial globalization, in which the adoption of western managerialist approaches and business-based forms of accountability underpins educational reform and development. J. Accultured, automatic, emotional responses preclude awareness of internalized culture. Handy, C. Scheins model provides a greater level of sophistication by focusing on a challenging interrogation of the culture of the school and linking culture more strongly to underpinning values and beliefs. Introduction. Morgan, G. Leader development across cultures. Archer (1996, p. 1) contends that the notion of culture remains inordinately vague to the extent that poverty of conceptualization leads to culture being grasped rather than analysed. There have been strong responses to the lack of critical awareness of these processes. From the approach adopted for teaching and learning, to the cultural values espoused in the pastoral and ethical functions of the school, to the relative value ascribed to possible destinations for pupils beyond school, the fabric of school life will be imbued by these cultural processes. Walker, A. The (racially neutral) politics of education: a critical race Theory perspective. Bjork, L. In another region of China, Hong Kong, teacher contact hours are considerably higher and leadership is more firmly placed with the principal. P. J. But the real purpose of schools was, is, and always will be about learning. , Journal of Research in Leader Education, Taras, V. According to Mortimore (1991), a lot of improvement efforts have failed because research results were not translated adequately into guidelines for educational practice. London: Sage. Panel 3. A tentative model and case study. Journal of Educational Administration, 334(5), 1231. The assumed commonality in attributes and behaviors may also be evident in axiological assumptions. Nor is it amoral. Mapping the conceptual terrain of leadership: a critical point for departure for cross-cultural studies. Understanding international differences in culture would provide a basis for planning cultural fit in preparation and development programs. A challenge to dominant cultures and the evolution of cultures which are seen as fitting will be achieved only by persistent efforts to increase the intercultural fluency of all involved, in part by increasing the evidence base, and in part through detailed translation of such evidence to impact the design and delivery of the development of leaders. Diversity and the demands of leadership. The notions of cultural diffusion and cultural fit assume that programs designed to take account of the cultural expectations and preferences of participants are more likely to lead to effective learning and resulting practice. (Litvin, 1997, pp. Changing the culture of a school or of a leadership development program is therefore not a finite endeavor. Prasad, P. Gupta In contrast the assessment of educational leaders often assumes that consideration of cultural fit is unnecessary in relation to standards which are uncritically accepted as international. (1998). Day In parallel, preparation and development sometimes include an element of raising awareness of cultures deemed to be other than that of the majority or the dominant group, what Stier (2003, p. 84) refers to as content-competencies, generally targeted at increasing knowledge of minority groups within the region or nation. One consequence is that there is currently no precise means of assessing dimensions variously labeled as cultural distance or degree of diversity (Iles & Kaur Hayers, 1997, p. 107) or diversity amount and diversity degree (Thomas, 1999; Taras & Rowney, 2007); that is the differences between the culture of one location of leader development and another, or the extent of cultural differences within a leader development group. (Eds. , & The third element of the system is the cultural output of the school. Rejection of the cultural assumptions in preparation and development programs abound on the grounds of gender (Brunner, 2002; Coleman, 2005; Louque, 2002; Rusch, 2004), ethnicity (Bryant, 1998; Tippeconic, 2006), national culture (Bjerke & Al-Meer, 1993; Hallinger, Walker. These may be through processes of exclusion or processes of inclusion, resulting in a relatively homogeneous or diverse student body, but in either case the outcome will be a pupil profile which reflects a particular set of cultural characteristics. Hooijberg, R. Hanges, S. & Stoll (2000) gave a general definition on the foundations of school's cultures. Cultural processes, the second element of a systems perspective, will be reflected in almost every dimension of the operation of the school. Leadership and Diversity; Challenging Theory and Practice in Education, Macpherson, R. Every school, for example, has a specific geographical and social location which will strongly shape its cultural context the inner city school serving a diverse multi-ethnic community will inherit a diversity of cultures that may be quite different to those of the suburban middle class school. Stoll and Fink (1996) created a typology of five types of school culture: moving (dynamic and successful determination to keep developing), cruising (rather complacent, often with privileged learners who achieve despite little school dynamism), strolling (neither particularly effective or ineffective, but long term not keeping pace with change), She challenges whether any classification of humans is tenable in the light of increasing certainty deriving from advances in natural science that whatever taxonomy is adopted, the complexity of human beings, biologically, linguistically and culturally, cannot be placed into easily described categories: The dynamic culture of Qiang, H. It is also a response to the greater sensitivity brought about by the increasing diversity within many societies and the insistence that a perspective based on a single dominant culture risks sustaining a hegemonic, ineffective and excluding approach. (Forthcoming). Essentially it makes a questionable assumption. Research in such contexts is still not extensive, although Billot, Goddard and Cranston (2007) report the findings of an international study which explores how leadership in successful multi-cultural schools is exercised in three different national settings (Canada, New Zealand and Australia). Managing diversity in transnational project teams. London: Falmer. Hargreaves, D. H. Pupils, staff and school leaders have an on-going engagement with external stakeholders, from parents, to neighbors, to employers, to the media, and every one of those interactions conveys a message about the culture of the school and its underpinning values. This search included empirical studies and theoretical pieces. Cultural diversity and group work effectiveness. There are different typologies that can be used to assess. (2001). This suggests that they are prepared, appointed and developed to reflect a specific set of values and beliefs and are expected to simply transmit those imposed and inherited values to staff and to pupils within their institution. In the absence of a similarly complex or authoritative study of the cultural factors in educational leadership, the design of much preparation and development seems to adhere to an assumed commonality and to avoid detailed engagement with the culturally contingent (Lumby et al., forthcoming), resulting in an international curriculum for school leadership preparation (Bush & Jackson, 2002, pp. Imperial Middle School 1450 S. Schoolwood Dr. La Habra, CA 90631 Phone: 562-690-2344. Mills Wong, K. (1996). The former has received very little and the latter a good deal more attention (Gronn, 2001; Heck, 1996). of the teachers, students and school community. Cultures and Organisations: Software of the Mind. Moller, J. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, v6 n1 p23-46 1995 Explores the relevance of culture to school effectiveness and school improvement. Hoppe (2004) believes US leaders have little difficulty in receiving negative feedback. The model identifies seven dimensions of organizational context that shape resultant culture, based on a series of key questions: These questions provide a helpful analytical framework, which can be applied in most educational contexts, and which seeks to identify the underlying values and beliefs within a school. For example, North American and European development assert a cultural commitment to inclusion and equality for all. Nevertheless, school leadership that supports, stimulates, and facilitates teacher learning, has been found to be a key condition for collaborative teacher learning (Stoll & Kools, 2017). In China the relatively low contact hours enjoyed by teachers combined with a culture of comfort with peer critique has resulted in teacher groups working together for a considerable proportion of their time to achieve change (Bush & Qiang, 2000), while principals spend much of their time on operational administration (Washington, 1991). & Leader and leadership development may therefore be as effectively focused on teacher leaders as on principals in these two countries. At the international scale, for example, the work of Hofstede (1991), has sought to provide a broad general analysis of national organizational cultures. McCauley & (2001). R. J. As a consequence, leaders must be equipped to work with both imported as well as indigenous culture. The GLOBE project was undertaken in a business context. She argues that a school's culture 'is shaped by the history, context, and the people in it ' (p. . Boosting pupil's progress development Working together to respond to changing context Know where they are going and having the will and skill to get there Possess norms of improving schools1.MOVING REFERS ON THE FOLLOWING: The key issue, of course, arising from globalization is that educational leaders will be faced increasingly with challenges to manage cultural change within their institution. We must be aware that the spread of good practice internationally through the educational management literature, through the actions of international organisations such as UNESCO, and through the impact of professional development programmes, all of which are dominated by the perspectives of western educational management practitioners and academics, is in danger of presenting such a global picture of good practice. Good schools of this were 1965 the context of change a story of change - the Halton effective school project school effectiveness can inform school improvement the possibilities and challenges of school improvement school . These can have negative or positive dimensions the media report of the schools excellent examination results will convey a different message about the schools culture than a local reputation for rowdy behavior by the schools pupils during lunchtime breaks. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 8(3), 207221. M. The implication is that if leadership preparation and development is to aspire to cultural fit, a high degree of sophistication is required. A new typology of school-level values is reported in three cultural contexts. Two other approaches might be more desirable ethically and politically. (forthcoming) distinguish transmission models, where experts pass on theoretical knowledge (often indiscriminately, as discussed earlier), and process models which use more community based styles of learning. (Litvin, 1997, pp. M. & The product will be a mosaic of sub-cultures, which may reinforce the cultural objectives of the whole school or, in some cases, appear as counter cultures that challenge the organizational hegemony. House The focus on culture at the macro or societal level is matched by concern with the micro or organizational level, the school level. Where preparation and development engage at all with culture, the current prevalence of content-competencies (Stier, 2003, p. 84) does not begin to equip leaders with the skills needed to relate to exogenous and endogenous cultures. Fullan (2001) has suggested that recognizing the need for, and understanding the processes involved in, cultural change are essential tools of leadership development, for it is in establishing a culture of change in school that successful school development can occur. & Leadership learning the praxis of dilemma management. Such an approach to cultural change is, of course, a key component of western approaches to educational leadership, and has been criticized for representing a fundamental misunderstanding of what culture is and can be. In relation to leader preparation and development culture has been framed largely as an issue of diffusion, particularly of Western values and practice applied to the development of leaders in all parts of the globe (Leithwood & Duke, 1998). It takes the view that culture can be unified and that dissent, anomaly, conflicts of interest or ambiguity are viewed. & Within this, however, there may exist several cultures: Stoll and Fink (1996)25 pupil culture, teacher cultures, a leadership culture, non-teaching staff culture, and parent culture. They begin by discussing the historical, social and organizational forces that create continuity in education; which . Cincinnati: South Western. Cultural complexity offers only multiple complications in assessing fit, not safe generalized conclusions. Organizational development in the Arab world. Stoll, & Mackay, 2014). For example, being dynamic and dependable, encouraging and displaying integrity were agreed to be positive leader attributes across all the nations involved. (1997). A similar situation is the case in Norway and in Japan (Moller, 2000). Each of these contexts has a culture that expresses itself conceptually, verbally, behaviorally and visually, and which is a product of the complex interaction of communities, socio-economic contexts and contrasts, ethnic and faith-based values and beliefs, and the history of that community as a whole and of the individuals within it. Leadership and intercultural dynamics. 178190). A major international study, The Global Leadership and Organizational Effectiveness (GLOBE) project, aimed to establish which leadership behavior was universally viewed as contributing to leadership effectiveness (House, Paul, Hanges, Ruiz-Quintanilla, Dorfman & Mansour 2004, p. 3). School culture, therefore, is most clearly "seen" in the ways people relate to and work together; the management of the school's structures, systems and physical environment; and the extent to which there is a learning focus for both pupils and adults, including the nature of that focus.
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